Liste der Studien zum Thema E-Zigarette (Stand: Januar 2015)

Immer wieder hört und liest man in den Medien, dass „so gut wie keine wissenschaftlichen Studien zu E-Zigaretten existieren.“ bzw. „eine zu dürftige Datenlage zu E-Zigaretten“ vorherrscht, um „eine abschließende Beurteilung vorzunehmen“.

Um dieser immer wieder kolportierten Behauptung auf den Grund zu gehen, muss man sich lediglich vor Augen führen, dass die E-Zigarette bereits seit 10 Jahren auf dem freien Markt verfügbar ist.

Namhafte Wissenschaftler aus aller Welt wie M. Laugesen, Z. Cahn, T. Eissenberg, M. Siegel, C. Bullen, J.-F. Etter, R. West, K. Farsalinos und viele andere, welche unter anderem mit der WHO und vielen staatlichen Behörden zusammenarbeiten, haben die E-Zigarette und ihre Komponenten seit vielen Jahren im Fokus und untersuchen diese.

Um die eingangs aufgeführten Behauptungen ad absurdum zu führen, will ich hier eine Auswahl der (meiner Meinung nach) wichtigsten wissenschaftlichen Veröffentlichungen zum Thema E-Zigarette aufführen, die sich während der letzten Jahre auf meiner Festplatte angesammelt haben:

1 2015 Tayyarah R, Long GA (2015) – Comparison of select analytes in aerosol from e-cigarettes with smoke from conventional cigarettes and with ambient air – Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology (2015)
2 2015 Tackett AP, Lechner WV, DeMond MG, et al. (2015) Biochemically verified smoking cessation and vaping beliefs among vape store customers – Addiction (2015)
3 2015 Shiffman S et al. (2014) – The Impact of Flavor Descriptors on Nonsmoking Teens’ and Adult Smokers’ Interest in Electronic Cigarettes – Nicotine and Tobacco Research (2015)
4 2015 Etter J-F et al. (2015) – Dependence levels in users of electronic cigarettes, nicotine gums and tobacco cigarettes – Drug et al.cohol Dependence (2015)
5 2015 Meier E M et al. (2015) – Which Nicotine Products Are Gateways to Regular Use? – American Journal of Preventive Medicine (2015)
6 2014 Hajek P (2014) – Electronic cigarettes have a potential for huge public health benefit – BMC Medicine (2014)
7 2014 Bekki K, Uchiyama S et al. (2014) – Carbonyl Compounds Generated from Electronic Cigarettes – International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (2014)
8 2014 Foulds J, Veldheer S et al. (2014) – Development of a questionnaire to assess dependence on electronic cigarettes in a large sample of ex-smoking e-cig users – Nicotine and Tobacco Research (2014)
9 2014 McRobbie H, Bullen C et al. (2014) – Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation and reduction – Cochrane Library (2014)
10 2014 Pepper J.K. et al. (2014) – Adolescent Males‘ Awareness of and Willingness to Try Electronic Cigarettes – Journal of Adolescent Health (2014)
11 2014 Goniewicz M L et al. (2014) – Rise in Electronic Cigarette Use Among Adolescents in Poland – Journal of Adolescent Health (2014)
12 2014 Krishnan-Sarin S et al (2014) E-cigarette Use Among High School and Middle School Adolescents in Connecticut – Nicotine and Tobacco Research (2014)
13 2014 Farsalinos K., Romagna G. et al. (2014) Characteristics, Perceived Side Effects and Benefits of Electronic Cigarette Use: A Worldwide Survey of More than 19,000 Consumers – nt. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(4)
14 2014 Pepper J.K. et al. (2014) How U.S. Adults Find Out About Electronic Cigarettes: Implications for Public Health Messages – Nicotine and Tobacco Research (2014)
15 2014 Paradise J. (2014) Electronic Cigarettes: Smoke-Free Laws, Sale Restrictions, and the Public Health – American Journal of public health
16 2014 Marini et al. (2014), Short-term effects of electronic and tobacco cigarettes on exhaled nitric oxide – Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
17 2014 Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (2014) E-Cigarettes: Impact on Individual and Population Health – Tobacco Control Volume 23, suppl 2
18 2014 Stimson G. V. (2014) Public health leadership and electronic cigarette users – European Journal of Public Health
19 2014 Curry L. and Lee YO (2014) E-cigarettes made especially for inmates – Tobacco Control 2014
20 2014 Chatham-Stephens K. et al. (2014) Notes from the Field: Calls to Poison Centers for Exposures to Electronic Cigarettes — United States, September 2010–February 2014 – Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) April 4, 2014 / 63(13);292-293
21 2014 Rodrigo Córdoba García (2014) El desafío de los cigarrillos electrónicos/The challenge of electronic cigarettes – Atención Primaria
22 2014 Nutt D.J.,· Phillips L.D., · Balfour D. et al. (2014) Estimating the Harms of Nicotine-Containing Products Using the MCDA Approach – Eur Addict Res 2014;20:218–225
23 2014 Dagaonkar R., Udwadia Z. (2014) Water Pipes and E-cigarettes : New Faces of an Ancient Enemy – Journal of the association of physicians of india vol 62
24 2014 Brown J., West R. (2014) Prevalence and characteristics of e-cigarette users in Great Britain: Findings from a general population survey of smokers – Addictive Behaviors
25 2014 Cummings, K. et al. (2014) E-Cigarettes and Cancer Patients – Journal of Thoracic Oncology
26 2014 Shawna L. Carroll Chapman, Li-Tzy Wua (2014) – E-cigarette prevalence and correlates of use among adolescents versus adults: A review and comparison – Journal of Psychiatric Research
27 2014 Kim A. et al. (2014) E-cigarette Advertising Expenditures in the U.S., 2011–2012 – American Journal of Preventive Medicine
28 2014 Saitta, D., Ferro, G. and Polosa, R. (2014) Achieving appropriate regulations for electronic cigarettes. Ther Adv Chronic Dis 3 February 2014 (Epub ahead of print). DOI: 10.1177/2040622314521271
29 2014 Farsalinos K., Stimsonb G. (2014), Is there any legal and scientific basis for classifying electronic cigarettes as medications ? – International Journal of Drug Policy
30 2014 Kubica P. , Wasik A., Kot-Wasik A. and Namieśnik J. (2014) – An evaluation of sucrose as a possible contaminant in e-liquids for electronic cigarettes by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry – Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
31 2014 Vallée JP., Gallois P., Le Noc Y. (2014) e-cigarette: vapoter vaut-il mieux que fumer ? – Médecine. Volume 10, Numéro 3, 121-6, Mars 2014, Stratégies
32 2014 Leverette R.D., Misra, M., Cooper, B;T. and Bennett, M.B. (2014) Potential toxicity of electronic cigarette liquids and aerosols as measured by four in vitro assays – 53rd Annual Meeting of the Society of Toxicology; Phoenix, AZ.
33 2014 Carlos A. et al. (2014) The Electronic Cigarette. Official Statement of the Spanish Society of Pneumology and Thoracic Surgery (SEPAR) on the Efficacy, Safety and Regulation of Electronic Cigarettes – Archivos de Bronconeumología
34 2014 Faure S., Babin S. et al. (2014) Managing tobacco addiction – Actualités Pharmaceutiques Volume 53, Issue 535, April 2014, Pages 27–30
35 2014 Nelson N. (2014) More Questions Than Answers Surrounding E-Cigarette Debate JNCI J Natl Cancer Inst dju101 doi:10.1093/jnci/dju101 first published online March 31, 2014
36 2014 Al-Abed A.; Chung T. et al. (2014) Perceptions, and Awareness of Electronic Cigarettes Among Healthcare Providers and In-Patients – 19th Denman Undergraduate Research Forum
37 2014 Hughes K., Hardcastle K. et al. (2014) “Most people I know have got one”: Young people’s perceptions and experiences of electronic cigarettes – Centre for Public Health, Liverpool John Moores University
38 2014 Hughes K., Hardcastle K. et al. (2014) E-cigarette access among young people in Cheshire and Merseyside Findings from the 2013 North West Trading Standards survey – Centre for Public Health, Liverpool John Moores University
39 2014 Sochor O. et al. (2014) Tobacco use and some characteristics of tobacco users. Preliminary results of “Kardiovize Brno 2030” Cor et Vasa
40 2014 Farsalinos K., Polosa R. (2014) Safety evaluation and risk assessment of electronic cigarettes as tobacco cigarette substitutes: a systematic review Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety 2042098614524430
41 2014 Behar, R., Davis, B., Wang, Y., Bahl, V., Lin, S. and Talbot, P. (2014) Identification of toxicants in cinnamon-flavored electronic cigarette refill fluids. Toxicol In Vitro 28: 198–208.
42 2014 Burstyn, I. (2014) Peering through the mist: Systematic review of what the chemistry of contaminants in electronic cigarettes tells us about health risks. BMC Public Health 14: 18.
43 2014 Farsalinos, K., Spyrou, A., Tsimopoulou, K., Stefopoulos, C., Romagna, G. and Voudris, V. (2014). Nicotine absorption from electronic cigarette use: comparison between first and new-generation devices. Sci Rep (in press).
44 2014 Grana R.A., Popova L., Ling P.M. (2014) A Longitudinal Analysis of Electronic Cigarette Use and Smoking Cessation JAMA Intern Med
45 2014 Nides, M., Leischow, S., Bhatter, M. and Simmons, M. (2014) Nicotine blood levels and short-term smoking reduction with an electronic nicotine delivery system. Am J Health Behav 38: 265–274.
46 2013 Dautzenberg B et al. (2013) – E-Cigarette: A New Tobacco Product for Schoolchildren in Paris – Open Journal of Respiratory Diseases (2013)
47 2013 Adkison, S., O’Connor, R., Bansal-Travers, M., Hyland, A., Borland, R., Yong, H.H. et al. (2013) Electronic nicotine delivery systems: international tobacco control four-country survey. Am J Prev Med 44: 207–215.
48 2013 Barnoya, J. and Navas-Acien, A. (2013) Protecting the world from secondhand tobacco smoke exposure: where do we stand and where do we go from here? Nicotine Tob Res 15: 789–804.
49 2013 Bertholon, J., Becquemin, M., Roy, M., Roy, F., Ledur, D., Annesi Maesano, I. et al. (2013) Comparison of the aerosol produced by electronic cigarettes with conventional cigarettes and the shisha. Rev Mal Respir 30: 752–757.
50 2013 Bullen, C., Howe, C., Laugesen, M., McRobbie, H., Parag, V., Williman, J. et al. (2013) Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 382: 1629–1637.
51 2013 Camenga, D., Delmerico, J., Kong, G., Cavallo, D., Hyland, A., Cummings, K. et al. (2013) Trends in use of electronic nicotine delivery systems by adolescents. Addict Behav 39(1): 338–340. Cantrell, F. (2013) Adverse effects of e-cigarette exposures. J Community Health 15 December 2013 (Epub ahead of print). DOI: 10.1007/s10900-013- 9807-5
52 2013 Caponnetto, P., Auditore, R., Russo, C., Cappello, G. and Polosa, R. (2013a) Impact of an electronic cigarette on smoking reduction and cessation in schizophrenic smokers: a prospective 12-month pilot study. Int J Environ Res Public Health 10: 446–461.
53 2013 Caponnetto, P., Campagna, D., Cibella, F., Morjaria, J., Caruso, M., Russo, C. et al. (2013b) EffiCiency and Safety of an eLectronic cigAreTte (ECLAT) as tobacco cigarettes substitute: a prospective 12-month randomized control design study. PLoS One 8: e66317.
54 2013 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2013) Notes from the field: electronic cigarette use among middle and high school students – United States, 2011-2012. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 62: 729–730. Chen, I. (2013) FDA summary of adverse events on electronic cigarettes. Nicotine Tob Res 15: 615–616.
55 2013 Czogala, J., Goniewicz, M., Fidelus, B., Zielinska- Danch, W., Travers, M. and Sobczak, A. (2013) Secondhand exposure to vapors from electronic cigarettes. Nicotine Tob Res (11 December 2011 (Epub ahead of print). DOI: 10.1093/ntr/ntt203
56 2013 Dawkins, L. (2013) Electronic cigarettes: what are they and are they effective? E-Cigarette Summit, London, UK (oral presentation). Available at: http://e-cigarettesummit. com/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/Summit- Presentations.pdf [accessed 22 December 2013].
57 2013 Dawkins, L. and Corcoran, O. (2013) Acute electronic cigarette use: nicotine delivery and subjective effects in regular users. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 231: 401–407.
58 2013 Dawkins, L., Turnern, J., Roberts, A. and Soar, K. (2013) ‘Vaping’ profiles and preferences: an online survey of electronic cigarette users. Addiction 108: 1115–1125.
59 2013 Dockrell, M., Morison, R., Bauld, L. and McNeill, A. (2013) E-Cigarettes: prevalence and attitudes in Great Britain. Nicotine Tob Res 15: 1737–1744.
60 2013 Douptcheva, N., Gmel, G., Studer, J., Deline, S. and Etter, J.F. (2013) Use of electronic cigarettes among young Swiss men. J Epidemiol Community Health 67: 1075–1076.
61 2013 Etter, J., Zäther, E. and Svensson, S. (2013) Analysis of refill liquids for electronic cigarettes. Addiction 108: 1671–1679.
62 2013 Farsalinos, K. and Romagna, G. (2013) Chronic idiopathic neutrophilia in a smoker, relieved after smoking cessation with the use of electronic cigarette: a case report. Clin Med Insights Case Rep 6: 15–21.
63 2013 Farsalinos, K., Romagna, G., Allifranchini, E., Ripamonti, E., Bocchietto, E., Todeschi, S. et al. (2013a) Comparison of the cytotoxic potential of cigarette smoke and electronic cigarette vapour extract on cultured myocardial cells. Int J Environ Res Public Health 10: 5146–5162.
64 2013 Farsalinos, K., Romagna, G., Tsiapras, D., Kyrzopoulos, S. and Voudris, V. (2013b) Evaluating nicotine levels selection and patterns of electronic cigarette use in a group of “vapers” who had achieved complete substitution of smoking. Subst Abuse 7: 139–146.
65 2013 Farsalinos, K., Romagna, G., Tsiapras, D., Kyrzopoulos, S. and Voudris, V. (2013c) Evaluation of electronic cigarette use (vaping) topography and estimation of liquid consumption: implications for research protocol standards definition and for public health authorities’ regulation. Int J Environ Res Public Health 10: 2500–2514.
66 2013 Farsalinos, K., Romagna, G. and Voudris, V. (2013d) Authors miss the opportunity to discuss important public health implications. J Chromatogr A 1312: 155–156.
67 2013 Farsalinos, K., Tsiapras, D., Kyrzopoulos, S., Stefopoulos, C., Spyrou, A., Tsakalou, M. et al. (2013f) Immediate effects of electronic cigarette use on coronary circulation and blood carboxyhemoglobin levels: comparison with cigarette smoking. Eur Heart J 34(Abstract Supplement): 13.
68 2013 Flouris, A., Chorti, M., Poulianiti, K., Jamurtas, A., Kostikas, K., Tzatzarakis, M. et al. (2013) Acute impact of active and passive electronic cigarette smoking on serum cotinine and lung function. Inhal Toxicol 25: 91–101.
69 2013 Goniewicz, M., Knysak, J., Gawron, M., Kosmider, L., Sobczak, A., Kurek, J. et al. (2013) Levels of selected carcinogens and toxicants in vapour from electronic cigarettes. Tob Control. DOI: 10.1136/ tobaccocontrol-2012-050859. (Published online: 6 March 2013).
70 2013 Kim, H. and Shin, H. (2013) Determination of tobacco-specific nitrosamines in replacement liquids of electronic cigarettes by liquid chromatographytandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 1291: 48–55.
71 2013 King, B., Alam, S., Promoff, G., Arrazola, R. and Dube, S. (2013) Awareness and ever use of electronic cigarettes among US adults, 2010–2011. Nicotine Tob Res 15(9): 1623–1627.
72 2013 Lee, S., Grana, R. and Glantz, S. (2013) Electronic cigarette use among Korean adolescents: a crosssectional study of market penetration, dual use, and relationship to quit attempts and former smoking. J Adolesc Health. DOI: 10.1016/j. jadohealth.2013.11.003. (Published online: 22 November 2013).
73 2013 Mayer, B. (2013). How much nicotine kills a human? Tracing back the generally accepted lethal dose to dubious self-experiments in the nineteenth century. Arch Toxicol 88: 5–7.
74 2013 MHRA Commission on human medicines, Working Group on nicotine containing products (NCPS) (2013). Current use of electronic cigarettes. Available at: http://www.mhra.gov.uk/home/groups/comms-ic/ documents/websiteresources/con286845.pdf (Accessed: 20 November 2013).
75 2013 National Association of Attorneys General (2013) FDA regulation on E-cigarettes. Available at: http:// www.naag.org/assets/files/pdf/E%20Cigarette%20 Final%20Letter%20(5)(1).pdf (Accessed: 20 November 2013).
76 2013 Nielsen, S., Franklin, G., Longstreth, W., Swanson, P. and Checkoway, H. (2013) Nicotine from edible Solanaceae and risk of Parkinson disease. Ann Neurol 74: 472–477.
77 2013 Palamidas, A., Gennimata, S., Kaltsakas, G., Tsikrika, S., Vakali, S., Gratziou, C. et al. (2013) Acute effect of an e-cigarette with and without nicotine on lung function. Presented at the European Respiratory Society’s Annual Congress, Poster P1054. Available at: http://www.ersnet.org/learning_resources_player/ abstract_print_13/files/100.pdf (Accessed: 20 November 2013).
78 2013 Polosa, R. and Caponnetto, P. (2013) Time for evidence-based e-cigarette regulation. Lancet Oncol 14: 582–583.
79 2013 Polosa, R., Morjaria, J., Caponnetto, P., Campagna, D., Russo, C., Alamo, A. et al. (2013a) Effectiveness and tolerability of electronic cigarette in real-life: a 24-month prospective observational study. Intern Emerg Med. DOI: 10.1007/s11739-013-0977-z (Published online: July 2013).
80 2013 Polosa, R., Rodu, B., Caponnetto, P., Maglia, M. and Raciti, C. (2013b) A fresh look at tobacco harm reduction: the case for the electronic cigarette. Harm Reduct J 10: 19.
81 2013 Romagna, G., Allifranchini, E., Bocchietto, E., Todeschi, S., Esposito, M. and Farsalinos, K. (2013) Cytotoxicity evaluation of electronic cigarette vapor extract on cultured mammalian fibroblasts (ClearStream-LIFE): comparison with tobacco cigarette smoke extract. Inhal Toxicol 25: 354–361.
82 2013 SRNT Europe Annual Congress, Helsinki, Finland. Poster RRP18. Available at: http://www.srnteurope. org/assets/srnt-e2012abstractbook.pdf [accessed 20 November 2013].
83 2013 Schober, W., Szendrei, K., Matzen, W., Osiander- Fuchs, H., Heitmann, D., Schettgen, T. et al. (2013) Use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) impairs indoor air quality and increases FeNO levels of e-cigarette consumers. Int J Hyg Environ Health. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2013.11.003. (Published online: 6 December 2013).
84 2013 Schripp, T., Markewitz, D., Uhde, E. and Salthammer, T. (2013) Does e-cigarette consumption cause passive vaping? Indoor Air 23: 25–31.
85 2013 US Pharmacopeia (2013) Elemental impurities limits. Available at: http://www.usp.org/sites/default/files/usp_ pdf/EN/USPNF/key-issues/c232_final.pdf (Accessed: 20 November 2013).
86 2013 Van Staden, S., Groenewald, M., Engelbrecht, R., Becker, P. and Hazelhurst, L. (2013) Carboxyhaemoglobin levels, health and lifestyle perceptions in smokers converting from tobacco cigarettes to electronic cigarettes. S Afr Med J 103: 865–868.
87 2013 Williams, M., Villarreal, A., Bozhilov, K., Lin, S. and Talbot, P. (2013) Metal and silicate particles including nanoparticles are present in electronic cigarette cartomizer fluid and aerosol. PLoS One 8: e57987.
88 2013 World Health Organization (2013) Tobacco fact sheet No 339. Updated July 2013. Available at: http://www. who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs339/en/ (Accessed: 18 November 2013).
89 2012 Goniewicz M L et al. (2012) – Electronic Cigarette Use Among Teenagers and Young Adults in Poland – Pediatrics (2012)
90 2012 Aubin, H., Rollema, H., Svensson, T. and Winterer, G. (2012) Smoking, quitting, and psychiatric disease: A review. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 36: 271–284.
91 2012 Bahl, V., Lin, S., Xu, N., Davis, B., Wang, Y. and Talbot, P. (2012) Comparison of electronic cigarette refill fluid cytotoxicity using embryonic and adult models. Reprod Toxicol 34: 529–537.
92 2012 Farsalinos, K., Tsiapras, D., Kyrzopoulos, S., Savvopoulou, M., Avramidou, E., Vasilopoulou, D. et al. (2012) Acute effects of using an electronic nicotine-delivery device (e-cigarette) on myocardial function: comparison with the effects of regular cigarettes. Eur Heart J 33(Abstract Supplement): 203.
93 2012 Flouris, A., Poulianiti, K., Chorti, M., Jamurtas, A., Kouretas, D., Owolabi, E. et al. (2012) Acute effects of electronic and tobacco cigarette smoking on complete blood count. Food Chem Toxicol 50: 3600–3603.
94 2012 Gennimata, S., Palamidas, A., Kaltsakas, G., Tsikrika, S., Vakali, S., Gratziou, C. et al. (2012) Acute effect of e-cigarette on pulmonary function in healthy subjects and smokers. Presented at the European Respiratory Society’s Annual Congress, Poster P1053. Available at: https://www.ersnetsecure.org/public/prg_congres. abstract?ww_i_presentation=59718 (Accessed: 20 November 2013).
95 2012 McAuley, T., Hopke, P., Zhao, J. and Babaian, S. (2012) Comparison of the effects of e-cigarette vapor and cigarette smoke on indoor air quality. Inhal Toxicol 24: 850–857. McCauley, L., Markin, C. and Hosmer, D. (2012) An unexpected consequence of electronic cigarette use. Chest 141(4): 1110–1113.
96 2012 Pellegrino, R., Tinghino, B., Mangiaracina, G., Marani, A., Vitali, M., Protano, C. et al. (2012) Electronic cigarettes: an evaluation of exposure to chemicals and fine particulate matter (PM). Ann Ig 24: 279–288.
97 2012 Romagna, G., Zabarini, L., Barbiero, L., Bocchietto, E., Todeschi, S., Caravati, E. et al. (2012) Characterization of chemicals released to the environment by electronic cigarettes use (ClearStream-Air project): is passive vaping a reality? TAW524430.indd 19 11/02/2014 6:10:34 PM by fila olivier Downloaded from taw.sagepub.com on February 14, 2014 Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety 20 http://taw.sagepub.com
98 2012 US Fire Administration (2012) Smoking-related Fires in residential buildings (2008-2010). Topical Fire Report Series 13. Available at: http://www.usfa.fema. gov/downloads/pdf/statistics/v13i6.pdf (Accessed: 20 November 2013).
99 2012 Vardavas, C., Anagnostopoulos, N., Kougias, M., Evangelopoulou, V., Connolly, G. and Behrakis, P. (2012) Short-term pulmonary effects of using an electronic cigarette: impact on respiratory flow resistance, impedance, and exhaled nitric oxide. Chest 141: 1400–1406.
100 2012 Woolf, K., Zabad, M., Post, J., McNitt, S., Williams, G. and Bisognano, J. (2012) Effect of nicotine replacement therapy on cardiovascular outcomes after acute coronary syndromes. Am J Cardiol 110: 968–970.
101 2011 Cahn, Z. and Siegel, M. (2011) Electronic cigarettes as a harm reduction strategy for tobacco control: a step forward or a repeat of past mistakes? J Public Health Policy 32: 16–31.
102 2011 Caponnetto, P., Polosa, R., Auditore, R., Russo, C. and Campagna, D. (2011a) Smoking cessation with e-cigarettes in smokers with a documented history of depression and recurring relapses. Int J Clin Med 2: 281–284.
103 2011 Caponnetto, P., Polosa, R., Russo, C., Leotta, C. and Campagna, D. (2011b) Successful smoking cessation with electronic cigarettes in smokers with a documented history of recurring relapses: a case series. J Med Case Rep 5: 585.
104 2011 Etter, J. and Bullen, C. (2011) Electronic cigarette: users profile, utilization, satisfaction and perceived efficacy. Addiction 106: 2017–2028.
105 2011 Lotfipour, S., Arnold, M., Hogenkamp, D., Gee, K., Belluzzi, J. and Leslie, F. (2011) The monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor tranylcypromine enhances nicotine self-administration in rats through a mechanism independent of MAO inhibition. Neuropharmacology 61: 95–104.
106 2011 Polosa, R., Caponnetto, P., Morjaria, J., Papale, G., Campagna, D. and Russo, C. (2011) Effect of an electronic nicotine delivery device (e-Cigarette) on smoking reduction and cessation: a prospective 6-month pilot study. BMC Public Health 11: 786.
107 2011 Werley, M., McDonald, P., Lilly, P., Kirkpatrick, D., Wallery, J., Byron, P. et al. (2011) Non-clinical safety and pharmacokinetic evaluations of propylene glycol aerosol in Sprague-Dawley rats and Beagle dogs. Toxicology 287: 76–90.
108 2010 Hadwiger, M., Trehy, M., Ye, W., Moore, T., Allgire, J. and Westenberger, B. (2010) Identification of amino-tadalafil and rimonabant in electronic cigarette products using high pressure liquid chromatography with diode array and tandem mass spectrometric detection. J Chromatogr A 1217: 7547–7555.
109 2010 Riess, U., Tegtbur, U., Fauck, C., Fuhrmann, F., Markewitz, D. and Salthammer, T. (2010) Experimental setup and analytical methods for the non-invasive determination of volatile organic compounds, formaldehyde and NOx in exhaled human breath. Anal Chim Acta 669: 53–62.
110 2010 Rigotti, N., Pipe, A., Benowitz, N., Arteaga, C., Garza, D. and Tonstad, S. (2010) Efficacy and safety of varenicline for smoking cessation in patients with cardiovascular disease: A randomized trial. Circulation 121: 221–229.
111 2009 Food and Drug Administration (2009) FDA and Public health experts warn about electronic cigarettes. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/ Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm173222.htm (Accessed: 20 November 2013).
112 2009 Laugesen, M. (2009). Ruyan®E-cigarette Bench-top tests. Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco (SRNT) Dublin, Poster 5-11. Available at: http:// www.healthnz.co.nz/DublinEcigBenchtopHandout. pdf [accessed 20 November 2013]. Le Houezec, J., McNeill, A. and Britton, J. (2011) Tobacco, nicotine and harm reduction. Drug Alcohol Rev 30: 119–123.
113 2009 Mayers, M. (2009) FDA acts to protect public health from electronic cigarettes. Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids statement. Available at: http:// www.tobaccofreekids.org/press_releases/post/id_1166 (Accessed: 20 November 2013).
114 2009 Moore, D., Aveyard, P., Connock, M., Wang, D., Fry-Smith, A. and Barton, P. (2009) Effectiveness and safety of nicotine replacement therapy assisted reduction to stop smoking: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 338: b1024.
115 2009 Westenberger, B. (2009) Evaluation of e-Cigarettes. St.Louis, MO: Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Division of Pharmaceutical Analysis. Available at: http://www.fda. gov/downloads/drugs/Scienceresearch/UCM173250. pdf (Accessed: November 10, 2013).
116 2008 Laugesen, M. (2008) Safety Report on the Ruyan® e-cigarette Cartridge and Inhaled Aerosol. Available at: http://www.healthnz.co.nz/ RuyanCartridgeReport30-Oct-08.pdf (Accessed: 18 November 2013).
117 2008 Ravindra, K., Wauters, E. and Van Grieken, R. (2008) Variation in particulate PAHs levels and their relation with the transboundary movement of the air masses. Sci Total Environ 396: 100–110.
118 2006 McClernon, F., Hiott, F., Westman, E., Rose, J. and Levin, E. (2006) Transdermal nicotine attenuates depression symptoms in nonsmokers: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 189: 125–133.
119 2006 Rodu, B. and Godshall, W. (2006) Tobacco harm reduction: An alternative cessation strategy for inveterate smokers. Harm Reduct J 3: 37.
120 2006 Rose, J. (2006) Nicotine and nonnicotine factors in cigarette addiction. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 184: 274–285.
121 2006 Schiller, J. and Ni, H. (2006) Cigarette smoking and smoking cessation among persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Health Promot 20: 319–323.
122 2005 Hukkanen J, Jacob P III, Benowitz N L (2005) – Metabolism and Disposition Kinetics of Nicotine – Pharmacological Reviews (2005)
123 2005 De Leon, J. and Diaz, F. (2005). A meta-analysis of worldwide studies demonstrates an association between schizophrenia and tobacco smoking behaviors. Schizophr Res 76: 1351–1357.
124 2005 Guillem, K., Vouillac, C., Azar, M., Parsons, L., Koob, G., Cador, M. et al. (2005) Monoamine oxidase inhibition dramatically increases the motivation to self-administer nicotine in rats. J Neurosci 25: 8593–8600.
125 2005 Hubbard, R., Lewis, S., Smith, C., Godfrey, C., Smeeth, L., Farrington, P. et al. (2005) Use of nicotine replacement therapy and the risk of acute myocardial infarction, stroke, and death. Tob Control 14: 416–421.
126 2005 Peters, A. (2005) Particulate matter and heart disease: evidence from epidemiological studies. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 207: 477–482.
127 2005 Varughese, S., Teschke, K., Brauer, M., Chow, Y., van Netten, C. and Kennedy, S. (2005) Effects of theatrical smokes and fogs on respiratory health in the entertainment industry. Am J Ind Med 47: 411–418.
128 2004 Ambrose, J. and Barua, R. (2004) The pathophysiology of cigarette smoking and cardiovascular disease: an update. J Am Coll Cardiol 43: 1731–1737.
129 2004 WHO-IARC (2004) IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Volume 83, tobacco smoke and involuntary smoking. Available at: http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol83/ mono83.pdf. (Accessed: 20 November 2013).
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131 2003 Yudkin, P., Hey, K., Roberts, S., Welch, S., Murphy, M. and Walton, R. (2003) Abstinence from smoking eight years after participation in randomised controlled trial of nicotine patch. BMJ 327: 28–29.
132 2002 Czekaj, P., Pałasz, A., Lebda-Wyborny, T., Nowaczyk- Dura, G., Karczewska, W., Florek, E. et al. (2002) Morphological changes in lungs, placenta, liver and kidneys of pregnant rats exposed to cigarette smoke. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 75 (Suppl): S27–S35.
133 2001 Wieslander, G., Norbäck, D. and Lindgren, T. (2001) Experimental exposure to propylene glycol mist in aviation emergency training: acute ocular and respiratory effects. Occup Environ Med 58: 649–655.
134 2000 Moline JM, Golden AL, Highland JH, Wilmarth KR & Kao AS (2000) – Health effects evaluation of theatrical smoke, haze and pyrotechnics. Download: http://www.actorsequity.org/docs/safesan/finalreport.pdf
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Dies ist lediglich eine kleine Auswahl der bisher veröffentlichten wissenschaftlichen Arbeiten. Im Juli 2014 wurde eine Übersichtsarbeit veröffentlicht, in der die bisher publizierten Artikel mit dem Hauptthema „E-Zigarette“ betrachtet wurden. Die Forscher kamen zu dem Ergebnis, dass bis Juni 2014 insgesamt 356 wissenschaftliche Studien und andere wissenschaftliche Arbeiten veröffentlicht worden sind.1

Nicht berücksichtigt haben Zyoud und Kollegen Forschungsarbeiten zu den Inhaltsstoffen (z.B. Propylenglykol, Glycerin, Nicotin, usw.). Diese Arbeit hatte Burstyn bereits im Jahr 2013 erledigt – Er identifizierte knapp 9000 Quellen (von variabler Qualität) zum Thema E-Zigaretten bzw. deren Inhaltsstoffen.2

Wer aufgrund dieser Datenlage behauptet: „Es gibt nicht genügend Studien“, hat vermutlich ein Augenproblem.

Freundlichst,

Rursus


  1. Zyoud, S H et al.: Worldwide research productivity in the field of electronic cigarette: a bibliometric analysis BMC Public Health, 2014 

  2. Igor Burstyn: Peering through the mist: Systematic review of what the chemistry of contaminants in electronic cigarettes tells us about health risks BMC Public Health, 2014 

Comments

  1. Hi Rursus,

    ich hoffe du kannst verstehen, dass man sich jetzt nicht jede Studie einzeln durchlesen kann. Gibt es eine Übersicht von den Ergebnissen der Studien?

    Grüße
    Paddy

    • Hallo Paddy!

      Das wären dann die sog. „Reviews“. Auch von solchen ist in der Liste zu lesen.

      Zum Beispiel:

      6 Hajek P (2014) – Electronic cigarettes have a potential for huge public health benefit – BMC Medicine (2014)
      9 McRobbie H, Bullen C et al. (2014) – Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation and reduction – Cochrane Library (2014)

      oder auch

      The emerging phenomenon of electronic cigarettes“ von Caponnetto et al.
      Achieving appropriate regulations for electronic cigarettes.“ von Polosa et al.

      ein eher unrühmliches Beispiel für ein Review ist

      E-Cigarettes – A Scientific Review“ von Grana und Glantz et al.

      Unrühmlich deshalb, weil Grana und Glantz hier „Cherrypicking“ betrieben und nichts unversucht gelassen haben, um die E-Zigarette und deren Komponenten in einem möglichst schlechten Licht zu betrachten.

  2. Danke, danke, DANKE, dass es dich gibt!
    Ich verfolge schon lange deinen Blog und als ich dein .pdf-Dokument zu „“Fakten zur eZigarette“ laß, war mir klar, ich muss dir endlich meinen Dank aussprechen.
    Es gibt wohl kaum jemanden, der so scharfsinning Fakten für jedermann verständlich zusammenträgt und diese ungehemmt teilt.
    Ich selbst habe zwar Zugang zu wissenschaftlichen „not open access“ Artikel, jedoch keine Zeit mir alles anzueignen. Und damit stehe ich nicht alleine!
    Danke, dass du bist, wie du bist und DANKE im Namen aller Befürworter für deine Seite und dein Engagement!

    Du bist klasse! Weiter so!

  3. Sorry, ich hoffe, mit dem Link klappt es:
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25770433
    Leider habe ich mich bei einem zentralen Satz verlesen. Im Abstract heißt es: „E-cigarettes could counteract the process of denormalization of smoking.“ Beim flüchtigen Querlesen habe ich aber aus „denormalization“ leider gedanklich „renormalization“ gemacht.

    • Vielen Dank!

      Trotz der Wischiwaschiaussage am Ende, hat dieses Paper doch etwas von Wert:

      127 (4,7 Prozent) der befragten 2693 Schüler hatten schon einmal eine E-Zigarette ausprobiert.
      30 (23,8 Prozent) der 127 hatten zwar eine E-Zigarette ausprobiert aber noch nie an einer Tabakzigarette gezogen – Das wären dann gerade mal knapp 1,1 Prozent der 2693 Schüler.

      Dem gegenüber stehen die 496 (18,4 Prozent) der 2693, die schon mal eine Tabakzigarette ausprobiert haben.

      Lustig ist, dass die Autoren hier zwar schreiben, dass das Ausprobieren von Tabakzigaretten vermutlich nicht zum E-Zigarettenkonsum führt aber die wichtige Frage „Führen E-Zigaretten zu Tabakzigaretten“ völlig nebenbei liegen lassen aber dafür (ohne Begründung und Datenbasis) am Ende schreiben, dass E-Zigaretten den Prozess des „Denormalisierens von Tabakzigaretten“ untergraben könnten.

      Schade, von Hanewinkel hätte ich etwas „Handfesteres“ erwartet.

      Tja, da helfen auch keine Darstellungstricks: Lediglich 1,1 Prozent der betrachteten 2693 Schüler, hatten schon einmal eine E-Zigarette ausprobiert und waren (sind!) Nichtraucher.

      Gruss
      Rursus

      PS Übrigens gefällt mir der (sehr informative und gründlich recherchierte) Artikel (vom 11. Februar 2015) zum Thema E-Zigaretten!

  4. Vielen Dank für die knackige Zusammenfassung der Ergebnisse und für die Einschätzung der Studie. Danke auch für die freundliche Rückmeldung zum Blogartikel.
    Gruß
    Ilja

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